Access Specifier and Scope

Below are Access Specifiers supported in Java.
1. private
2. public
3. protected
4. default or none

private, public, protected are Access specifiers, which can be used only for members(data members and member methods) of a class.

private members can be accessed only within the class.

public members can be accessed with the class, other classes in current package, classes in other package.

protected members can be accessed within the class, and in the immediate derived class.

members with no access specifiers can be accessed within the class, and other classes only within current package.

Lifetime of variables

Lifetime of a variable, depends on the place where it has been declared.

Life time of Data members or instance variables is same as the object, in which they exist. An object is destroyed by garbage collector Java when there are no more reference to that object.

Local Variables:
Local variables are the variables declared in the method body. Local variable are available within method body until method returns.

Arguments or Parameters:
Arguments or Parameters are passed to constructor or methods, and are available until the constructor or method returns.

Also variables can be declared in a block(Eg. if, else block,etc…), within a method. Such variables are available only within the block where they have been declared.

Below is an example code snippet:

class Test1
	int i,j; //data members or member variables or instance variables

	i = 20;
	j = 11;

	System.out.println("Test1() Constructor");

	void add() //member methods
	int k; //local variable i..e not a member variable of Test1 class
	//NOTE: k cannot be accessed from object of Test1 class
	k = i+j;
	System.out.println("Add Result is:"+k);

	void sub()
	int l = i-j; //l is local variable
	System.out.println("Sub Result is:"+l);

public class ClassDemo {
//execution starts from here
public static void main(String args[])
//obj is local object
	Test1 obj; //declaring object reference
	obj=new Test1(); //creating object of Test1 class
	obj.add(); //invoking add() method of Test1 class, using object obj


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